By Elizabeth Ossip, LCSW, CAP, ICADC
We have been hearing a lot lately about opioid addiction in America from the news, in politics and just about everywhere you turn. If you, a family member or a friend have been affected by this disorder you are all too aware of the great challenges associated with opioid addiction. In this article, we will explore the specifics of what opioid addiction is, why opioids are so addictive, what happens physiologically in opioid dependence and addiction, and other opioid addiction facts, as well as how to get help for an opioid addict, be it yourself or someone you love.
What are opiates?
Opioids are drugs that include synthetic drugs such as fentanyl and methadone, legally prescribed pain relievers like oxycodone, (OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan,) hydrocodone, (Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet,) codeine, morphine, Darvon, Demerol, Dilaudid, and others, as well as the illegal drug heroin. In addition to the synthetic drugs, opioids include opiates, which are drugs directly derived from opium and the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy, such as morphine and codeine. Semi-synthetics, heroin, oxycodone, and buprenorphine are also referred to as opioids. All of these comprise the class of narcotic drugs now known as opioids.
What is opioid addiction?
Opioid addiction is the compulsive use, despite negative consequences, of one or more of the substances in the opioid class of drugs and, like all addictions, is a disease of the brain. Opioid addiction is centered in the brain’s reward system. The brain develops a dependence on opioids with repetitive use and addiction occurs when the euphoric effect of the drug is repeated to the point that the brain perceives the drug to be necessary to survival.
The addict, on some level, is convinced they will die without the drug. This driving compulsion is the at the core of the opioid addiction crisis.
Why are opioids addictive and what is opioid addiction like? All of these drugs are related chemically and interact with the opioid receptors on nerve cells in the body and brain. The body produces naturally occurring opioids called endorphins to regulate pain and pleasure. The receptors in the brain don’t know the difference between the natural endorphins and the opioid drugs.
Opioid dependence develops when neurons adapt to the repeated exposure to the drug and only function normally when the drug is present. When the drug is removed, several physiologic reactions occur. This is known as “withdrawal.” Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, body aches, difficulty sleeping, restlessness, anxiety, runny nose and watery eyes, rapid heart rate and high blood pressure are all symptoms of withdrawal.
It can be very uncomfortable and the dependent person often seeks more opioids to relieve discomfort and to allow them to feel “normal” again. “Tolerance” is the effect of needing higher and higher doses of the substance to achieve the same effect. With heroin or morphine, tolerance to the pain relieving effects develops rapidly, causing the user to need to increase the dose. This is also true in some degree of all opioids and can lead to addiction. When opioids are misused for the euphoric effect and more and/or increasingly stronger drugs are used, addiction develops.
This euphoric effect is one reason why opioids are so addictive. And yes, all opioids are addictive to one degree or another. There is no such thing as nonaddictive opioids. Science is working on developing less-risky opioids like buprenorphine, which is also used to treat opioid addiction, but buprenorphine still has some addictive properties and is also very costly and often not covered by insurance.
Opioid addiction symptoms are: the loss of control of the use of an opioid substance, experiencing cravings, drug seeking behavior, negative consequences, such as financial, social, relationship, work or school and health problems as a result of using, as well as dependence, tolerance and withdrawal. The Diagnostic Statistical Manual, the DSM-5, defines “opioid use disorder” with a lengthy list of criteria and specifiers. The spectrum of opioid use disorder spans a wide range of patterns of use, levels of dependency and degrees of addictive behaviors.
How do you get addicted to opioids?
When opioids are prescribed for pain relief they are generally safe, if taken for a short time and only as prescribed by a doctor, but if taken for extended periods and misused; not taken in accordance with the prescription, regular use can lead to dependence, tolerance, addiction, overdose and death. Because of the possible euphoric effect opioids can produce, they are easily misused.
Many people ask; how long does it take to get addicted to opiates? Everyone is different, many factors can have a bearing on how long it takes to form an addiction. With repetitive and excessive use it does not take very long to develop a dependence. In a matter of just a few continuous days of using heroin some withdrawal symptoms may be experienced upon stopping the use of the drug.
When using opioids to experience euphoria, to get “high,” addiction can develop in a short time. The use of other substances like alcohol and a person’s predisposition to addiction can cause a more rapid development of dependence and addiction.
Anyone who is prescribed opioids for pain, someone with an injury or surgery, even dental work or other relatively minor procedures or conditions can subject a person to fall prey to opioid addiction, given the right circumstances and factors. Opioid addiction after surgery or injury is all too common. Someone with chronic pain or a severe injury is especially at risk. A person starts taking the medication as prescribed, but as tolerance and dependence develop the person may take more and stronger opioids. If the euphoric effects play on the brain’s reward system, addiction is soon to follow. Illicit use of prescription opioids to get high is common also. Young people, some in high school or even as young as middle school, are common victims of illegal opioid use. Sometimes they start legally by being prescribed medication for pain. They may then move on to buying the drug illegally on the street or take their parent’s or another adult’s medication to get high. Before long they become hopelessly addicted. The not fully developed brains of the young are even more susceptible to opioid addiction than an adult brain and can pave the way for a life-long struggle with addiction. A family history of addiction or alcoholism can be a predictor of a predisposition to opioid addiction, as can a history of trauma and the early use or abuse of alcohol and other drugs.
We hear about the opioid “epidemic,” but how many people actually are addicted to opioids? According to the CDC, 91 people die every day in the U.S. from opioid overdose. The numbers for opioid misuse in 2016 for people ages 12 or older in our country are just as staggering; 11.8 million, 4.4% of the population, based on a SAMHSA study. These opioid epidemic statistics are also probably somewhat underreported, as people often are in denial and hide their addiction until it becomes very progressed. Which are the worst states for opioid addiction? According to a recent study by WalletHub, Washington DC has the worst drug problem in the country. After DC, Vermont, Colorado, Delaware, Rhode Island, Oregon, Connecticut, Arizona, Massachusetts and Michigan follow in ranking as the top 10 States with the worst drug problem. The same study found West Virginia to have the highest number of opioid overdose deaths in the country per capita, with New Hampshire, Kentucky, Ohio and Rhode Island following, and Alabama to have the most opioid prescriptions per 100 people. With these opioid addiction statistics it is clear that opioid addiction treatment needs to be a priority in the US. New and stronger regulations for the prescribing of opioids need to be put in place and less addictive means of pain control and management need to be developed, in addition to better access to treatment and cracking down on illegal trafficking of opioids.
What does opioid addiction treatment look like?
First, detox helps get the drugs out of your system safely, while keeping you as comfortable as possible. Medically supervised detox is important to make sure all vital signs are monitored and any health and safety concerns are addressed immediately. Medication to assist in the detox process and to address any other medical and psychiatric needs can be appropriately prescribed by a psychiatrist and on-going medication management can be administered.
After the initial detox is completed, usually in a few days, a period of at least four to six weeks of inpatient treatment is advisable. Residential treatment provides a supportive, drug-free environment, education about addiction and recovery, group and individual therapy, 12 Step and peer support, and a holistic, healing experience. After in-patient treatment many people benefit from continued intensive outpatient treatment (IOP) and supportive “sober living” housing. This consists of continued group and individual counseling, supervised housing, continued 12 Step participation, and medication management.
After completing IOP, continued, stepped-down, out-patient treatment should continue until the recovering addict has established a strong base for their recovery and a positive network of support. A continuous and comprehensive program of recovery that gradually transitions from one level of care to the next, as seamlessly as possible, along with continuous 12 Step involvement, builds a strong and stable sobriety that is less likely to succumb to relapse.
How can you help an opioid addict?
Because of the effects on the addict’s brain, there is a tremendous amount of denial and resistance to admitting they have a problem and getting treatment. The changes in the brain caused by the repetitive use of the opioid, on some level, make the addict convinced that without the drug they will die. They will go to any lengths to continue to use it, including lying, denying, stealing, etc. It is important to understand this and to avoid nagging, threatening or pleading with the addict. It will likely not work and possibly make matters worse, as well as frustrate both you and the addict. Having an open conversation about your concerns with them may be the best initial approach, followed by the suggestion to get a qualified medical opinion. If the person is willing, have them immediately speak to an addictions professional that can assess them appropriately. Do not wait, as they may change their mind. If they will not agree to this, a professional intervention may be beneficial. An interventionist will coordinate and facilitate a group meeting with family and close friends of the addict to tell the addict how their using is impacting their loved ones and to support the addict to get treatment. Stop enabling the addict by not doing things for them that they can do for themselves, not making excuses for them, not covering for them, not giving them money or not helping them get drugs. This is very important and can help them to realize they have a problem and need help. An addict can be incredibly persuasive and manipulative and it requires great strength and perseverance to deal with them. Groups like Al-Anon and Nar-Anon can help by providing peer support, education, and coping tools to manage the challenges of having an addict in your life. Professional counseling is also advisable. If you have a loved one who is an opioid addict, speak to one of the addiction specialists at Beachway Therapy Center by calling 877-284-0353 to discuss the next steps in getting them into opiate rehab treatment and on their road to recovery.
Get Help Today
If you are worried about your own opioid use you need to speak to a professional immediately. It is highly likely that if you are concerned, you need opioid addiction help. By calling our helpline at 877-284-0353 you can speak to someone who understands and can help you determine the right course of action to take for your recovery. When you are caught up in the cycle of opioid addiction it is very difficult to make a clear decision on your own. Getting an objective, informed, professional perspective will help you make the right choice that can make all the difference in what may actually save your life. So, give us a call at Beachway 877-284-0353. We are there for you, we understand what you are going through and will help you get the help you need. Treatment for opioid addiction solutions is available and possible!